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垂釣鸚嘴魚的感想與釣法

  鸚嘴魚,屬鱸形目科,體側扁,一般呈長橢圓形,口不能向前伸出,兩頜齒多數癒合成齒板,齒板表面存有較多尖銳的細齒,因其與“鸚鵡”的口齒甚為相似,故名“鸚嘴魚”(parrot fishes)。在我國,主要分佈在廣東、廣西、海南等沿海及其所轄水域,現已發現和記載的有二十餘種,如杜氏鸚嘴魚、青寬額鸚嘴魚、鮑氏鸚嘴魚等等。鸚嘴魚通常棲息於珊瑚礁中或者岩礁之間,主要以珊瑚、海膽、蝦、貝類等無脊椎動物及藻類為生。

  由於鸚嘴魚吃餌相對謹慎小心,通常在一年當中很難釣得幾尾,故筆者將其列為不常見魚之一。記得釣上第一尾鸚嘴魚的時間是1997年國慶日,當時純屬意外收穫,足有一千克重,因其體色與眾大不相同,又不知有無毒否,所以在返回的途中問了數位當地漁民,他們多稱之為“隆頭魚”或“地瓜魚”,可食用且無毒。在這裏,筆者將近幾年垂釣杜氏鸚嘴魚的感想與釣法說與釣友參考:

  一、釣竿要“軟”。鸚嘴魚吃食快而猛,要求竿的靈敏度相對也要高,這裏所說的“軟”即竿的靈敏度與抗拉強度。由於近海岸的鸚嘴魚體重一般不超過1000克,筆者常採用“法萊”與“迪佳”系列磯釣軟竿垂釣,竿長處在2.4~3.0米之間。使用3.60~6.30米的手竿亦可,能合理利用地形製作依託來固定手竿則更好,反之在實際垂釣中容易讓手產生疲勞感。

  二、釣線要“優”。垂釣鸚嘴魚宜用細而優的主線與腦線,細線對海水中的波浪或者水下回流的阻力相對較小,從而有效提高靈敏度。在垂釣中,主線一般宜採用0.2~0.3毫米的優質線,腦線宜用與主線同顏色且直徑稍細一點即可,這樣垂釣500克以內的鸚嘴魚是不成問題的,因為被鉤住的魚絕大多數是掛住了左右嘴角邊,如果鉤進入食道且腦線在魚嘴的中部遊動,這時很有可能腦線被咬斷。因此,在提高中魚的保險係數或者可能遇上一千克以上的鸚嘴魚時,則要將腦線更換為防咬線,且腦線的長度在10~13釐米為宜,這主要是考慮防咬線在實際垂釣當中很容易纏繞,同時也可以防止在遛魚時被咬斷腦線而跑魚的情況發生。另外,線上的顏色選擇上要因海水的能見度而定,通常情況下,水清時一般使用白色等淺色的主副線,當海水相對混濁時可使用墨綠色等顏色較深的釣線。

  三、釣鉤要“小”。垂釣鸚嘴魚時,一般對鉤有所選擇和要求,特別是在珊瑚地質的海岸垂釣時,用鉤宜小不宜大,鉤太小時,掛魚後的深度若不夠容易空竿。筆者也曾觀察過釣友用5號小鉤收穫過重約500克的鸚嘴魚,但通常做法是使用7~11號小鉤為宜,平鉤與斜鉤均可中魚,但斜鉤上魚的機會比平鉤要大得多。如果是有備而來垂釣鸚嘴魚時,建議使用鉤尖鋒銳或者品質上乘的進口鉤針。同時配以15~40克重的墜,採用“實心墜加鉤上”或者“通心墜加鉤下”的方法均可。但有一個小環節值得注意,由於使用的鉤較小,在綁鉤時一定要注重綁實,且腦線的垂直方向處於鉤的內側。在綁防咬線時,可借助虎鉗等工具配合拉緊。

  四、釣餌要“鮮”。筆者曾多次用整只活蝦垂釣該魚,結果無一收穫。爾後,換為剪成小段的蝦或粒狀的貝肉時,就起到了立竿見影的效果。這樣就可以推斷出:鸚嘴魚多喜歡吃細小而鮮活的食物。然而,清早外出垂釣的釣友們一般較難在市場上買到新鮮的活餌,通常做法是在先一天下午或者晚上準備好,冰凍或者其他方式保存都可以,而筆者多以增氧器保持海蝦的鮮活。因為用蝦垂釣相對乾淨也方便操作。在準備蝦餌時也要注意一個小小環節:野生蝦之外殼相對要梗,殼與肉相連較緊,常換餌料時對鉤尖有一定的損傷,且較難中魚;而養殖蝦的外殼相對而言要軟些,即使去殼垂釣也相當方便,筆者所釣鸚嘴魚大多為軟蝦分段餌所得。如果在條件允許時,也可以在退潮之時拾些海膽、貝、海蚯蚓等用做餌料。

  五、釣技要“活”。這裏所說的“活”是指人的主觀要靈活多變。垂釣鸚嘴無需打窩子,憑感覺與運氣而得魚。一為時間“活”。通常在春夏之交的時節,是鸚嘴魚活動相對頻繁的時期,特別是每天早上08:30~10:00或者是下午16:00~18:00,是垂釣該魚的較好時機,到了秋天,垂釣時間要有所推後,同時要結合潮汐一併考慮,而冬天鸚嘴魚較少吃鉤。二為釣點“活”。到達鸚嘴魚常出沒的釣點後,首先要避開雀鯛、黎猛等小魚較多的地方。其次要有意識地快速下竿。建議使用空心墜沉底釣法,下綁兩枚9~11號斜鉤,每當三五分鐘仍無動靜時,要及時提竿換餌,如果發現餌料未動可繼續落竿;在等待近二十分鐘仍無反應時,則要在同一釣區另點開竿。由於珊瑚區地質對鉤與墜的損耗較大,因此最多同時使用兩支竿垂釣。三為手“活”。手活指人與竿處於主動位置,當墜沉入水底後,稍收緊主線,並用食指微帶主線等待時機,一旦出現竿尖點頭或者主線有力的作用時,要當機立斷向上提竿一小段距離,有魚的感覺時則進入遛魚狀態,無魚時則換餌再來。四是遛魚“活”。一般情況下,鸚嘴魚中鉤之後,竿的下彎程度較大,魚的本能促使其會迅速向珊瑚縫隙中逃竄,因此,當感覺魚被掛實後,要以最快的速度提竿,且力量不能過大,這樣做的主要目的就是將鸚嘴魚帶離底層珊瑚區,以防止功虧一簣。由於鸚嘴魚在中鉤時的初始力量較大,因而需要耐心與方法得當,既不能操之過急一口氣提出水面,也不能猶豫不決被珊瑚石纏住主線,正確的做法是:第一步在魚中鉤之時迅速提竿一至兩米的高度,讓鸚嘴魚脫離珊瑚區;第二步在不放線的前提下,通過手與竿的配合進行橫“8”字形遛魚,等2~3分鐘後將魚遛到水面用抄網抄入即可。

  與此同時,在垂釣鸚嘴魚時還要做到:出門看天,釣點當察,潮汐要記,安全勿忘。這就是說,選擇較好的天氣(晴天或者陰天)垂釣,避免雷雨天外出;選擇與珊瑚地質相關的近岸作為固定釣點,防止漫無目標地消耗體能;選擇每天漲潮與落潮前的兩小時,錯開落潮後與平潮時的感歎;選擇結伴垂綸,時刻牢記安全比什麼都重要。只有這樣,鸚嘴魚才有可能光顧你的魚護。
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